The New York Times, like in all aspects, keeps furniture relatively simple.
Captions are in the same type and size as body copy. Pull quotes aren’t used as much as you’d expect for a newspaper that doesn’t rely heavily on images. The pulls are usually three lines with no more than four words per line in an italicized type.
The exact size of refers often varies by section, but generally they’re coupled either with a small vertical or horizontal image, headline and small description of the story.
Dropcaps don’t seem to be used in the New York Times, but jumps are a big component. It’s very rare for a story on the front page to finish on the front page. Usually it jumps inside to somewhere around the A8 or A13 area, forcing readers to look over the rest of the content in between.
One thing that I noticed when specifically looking for furniture in the paper was the use of bylines for special column sections. When there’s a spot written by a certain person consistently, instead of using the normal “By JONATHAN WEISMAN,” the Times uses “ANDREW ROSS SORKIN” in larger type, followed by a line and then the name of the column in a smaller, bolder type. I think this helps separate things that are columns and regular news stories in an effective way. If you looked at the New York Post or Daily News, you’d see the use of photos with columns. I think that works too, but for what the Times is generally going for in simplicity and authority, the small but noticeable byline change works well.
Headlines vary based on how the paper wants to emphasize them. The cover varies in amount of lines, caps vs. non-capped, italics vs. non-italics. Inside varies in the same way. It’s just a matter of what the story is.